Aaron’s Rod.—See “Solidago.”
Abelia.—Very ornamental evergreen shrubs, bearing tubular,
funnel-shaped flowers. They succeed in any ordinary soil if the
situation is warm and sheltered, and are readily raised by cuttings.
Height, 3 ft. to 4 ft.
Abies (Spruce Firs).—Among these ornamental conifers mention may
be made of the beautiful Japanese Spruce Ajanensis, which grows freely
in most soils and has dual-coloured leaves—dark green on the upper
surface and silvery white underneath; this makes a grand single specimen
anywhere. The White Spruce (Abies Alba Glauca) is a rapid grower, but
while it is small makes a lovely show in the border; it prefers a moist
situation. Of the slow-growing and dwarf varieties Gregorii is a
favourite. The Caerulea, or Blue Spruce, is also very beautiful.
Clanbrasiliana is a good lawn shrub, never exceeding 4 ft. in height.
The Pigmy Spruce (A. Pygmea) is the smallest of all firs, only
attaining the height of 1 ft. Any of these may be increased by cuttings.
Abronia.—Handsome half-hardy annual trailers. Grow in sandy peat
and multiply by root division. Flowers in April. Height, 4 in. to 6 in.
Abutilon.—Evergreen greenhouse shrubs of great beauty and easy
cultivation. May be raised from seed, or by cuttings of young shoots
placed in spring or summer in sand under glass, or with a bottom heat.
Cut the old plants back in January, and when new shoots appear re-pot
the plants. Height, 5 ft. to 8 ft.
Acacia.—Winter and spring flowering greenhouse shrubs with
charming flowers and graceful foliage. May be grown from seed, which
should be soaked in warm water for twenty-four hours, or they may be
propagated by layers, cuttings placed in heat, or suckers. They like a
rich sandy loam soil. Height, 2 ft. to 3 ft.
Acæna.—These shrubby plants are herbaceous and mostly hardy, of a
creeping nature, fast growers, and suitable for dry banks or rough stony
places. They flourish best in sandy loam and peat, and may be increased
by cuttings placed under glass. The flowers, which are green, are
produced in May. The height of the various kinds varies from 3 in. to 2
Acantholimon Glumaceum (Prickly Thrift).—This is a frame
evergreen perennial, thriving in any light, rich soil. It can be
increased by dividing the roots. In May it puts forth its rose-coloured
flowers. Height, 3 in.
Acanthus.—A coarse, yet stately hardy perennial, which has large
ornamental foliage, and flowers in August. It is not particular as to
soil or situation, but free space should be given it. Will grow from
seed sown from March to midsummer, or in August or September in a
sheltered situation. Will also bear dividing. Height, 3 ft.
Acer (Maple).—Very vigorous plants, suitable when young for
pots, and afterwards for the shrubbery. The A. Negundo Variegata has
silvery variegated leaves, which contrast effectively with dark foliage,
Campestre Colchicum Rubrum, with its bright crimson palmate leaves, is
very ornamental, as is also Negundo Californicum Aurem, with its
golden-yellow foliage. The Maple grows best in a sandy loam. It may be
increased by cuttings planted in a shaded situation, or by layers, but
the choice varieties are best raised from seed sown as soon as it is
Achillea Ptarmica (Sneezewort).—A pure white hardy perennial
which blooms in August. The dried leaves, powdered, produce sneezing.
Any soil. Best increased by rooted off-sets. Flowers from July to
September. Height, 1-1/2 ft.
Achimenes.—Fine plants, suitable for the greenhouse, sitting-room,
or hanging baskets. Plant six tubers in a 5-in. pot, with their growing
ends inclining to the centre and the roots to the edge of the pot, and
cover them an inch deep with a compost of peat, loam, and leaf-mould, or
a light, sandy soil. Keep them well supplied with liquid manure while in
a growing state. Height, 6 in. to 2-1/2 ft.
Aconite (Monk’s-Hood or Wolf’s-Bane).—Very pretty and very
hardy, and succeeds under the shade of trees; but being very poisonous
should not be grown where there are children. Increased by division or
by seeds. Flowers June to July. Height, 4 ft. (See also “Winter
Acorus (Sweet Flag).—A hardy bog plant, having an abundance of
light-coloured evergreen foliage. It will grow in any wet soil. Height,
Acroclinium.—Daisy-like everlastings. Half-hardy annuals suitable
for cutting during summer, and for winter bouquets. Sow in pots in
February or March, cover lightly with fine soil, plunge the pot in
gentle heat, place a square of glass on the top, and gradually harden
off. Seed may also be sown in the open during May or in autumn for early
flowering. Height, 1 ft.
Acrophyllum Verticillatum.—A greenhouse evergreen shrub. It will
grow in any soil, and may be increased by cuttings of half-ripened wood.
March is its flowering season. Height, 3 ft.
Acrotis.—These are mostly hardy herbaceous plants from South
Africa. The soil should consist of two parts loam and one part
leaf-mould, and the situation should be dry and sunny. Seed may be sown
early in March in gentle heat, and the plants grown on in a cold frame
till May, when they may be planted out a foot apart. They will flower at
midsummer. Winter in a warm greenhouse. Height, 2 ft. Some few are of a
Actaea Spicata (Bane Berry).—A hardy herbaceous perennial which
delights in a shady position, and will even grow under trees. It is
increased by division of the roots, or it may readily be raised from
seed in ordinary soil. May is its flowering month. Height, 3 ft.
Actinella Grandiflora.—A showy herbaceous plant, bearing large
orange-coloured flowers in July. It is not particular as to soil, and is
increased by dividing the roots. Height, 1 ft.
Actinomeris Squarrosa.—This hardy and ornamental herbaceous plant
bears heads of bright yellow flowers, resembling small sunflowers, from
June to August. It thrives in any loamy soil, and is easily increased by
dividing the root. Height, 4 ft.
Adam’s Needle.—See “Yucca.”
Adenandra Fragrans.—An evergreen shrub suitable for the
greenhouse. It thrives best in a mixture of sandy peat and turfy loam.
Cuttings of the young branches stuck in sand will strike. It flowers in
June. Height, 3 ft.
Adenophora Lilifolia.—Pretty hardy perennials suitable for the
border. Produce drooping pale blue flowers on branching spikes in July.
Any soil suits them. They may be grown from seed, but will not allow
being divided at the root. Height, 1 ft.
Adlumia Cirrhosa.—Interesting hardy climbers. Will grow in any
soil, and are readily increased by seeds sown in a damp situation.
Require the support of stakes. Bloom in August. Height, 15 ft.
Adonis Flos.—Showy crimson summer flowers, requiring only the
simplest treatment of hardy annuals. Sow in March or April in the open
border. Height, 1 ft.
Adonis Pyrenaica.—A rare but charming Pyrenean perennial species,
with thick ornamental foliage, and producing large golden-yellow flowers
from May to July. It needs no special treatment. Height, 1-1/2 ft.
Adonis Vernalis.—A favourite hardy perennial, which grows freely
from seed in any garden soil. It may also be increased by dividing the
roots. Height, 1 ft.
Æthionema Cordifolium.—This little Alpine plant is a hardy
evergreen that is very suitable for rock-work, as it will grow in any
soil. Its rose-hued flowers are produced in June. It may be propagated
by seeds or cuttings. Height, 3 in.
Agapanthus (African Lily).—This is a noble plant, which succeeds
well in the open if placed in a rich, deep, moist loam in a sunny
situation or in partial shade. In pots it requires a strong loamy soil
with plenty of manure. Throughout the summer the pots should stand in
pans of water. Re-pot in March. Give it plenty of pot room, say a 9-in.
pot for each plant. In winter protect from severe frost, and give but
very little water. The flowers are both lovely and showy, being produced
during August in great bunches on stems 3 ft. high. The plant is nearly
hardy. Several growing together in a large tub produce a fine effect. It
is increased by dividing the root while in a dormant state.
Ageratum.—Effective half-hardy annual bedding plants, thriving
best in a light, rich soil. Seed should be sown in heat in February or
March. Cuttings root freely under glass. Height, 1-1/2 ft. There is a
dwarf variety suitable for ribbon borders and edgings. Height, 6 in.
Agricultural Seeds.—Required per statute acre.
Carrot 5 to 6 lb. Cabbage (to transplant) 1″ Cabbage (to drill) 2 to 3″
Kohl Rabi (to drill) 2 to 3″ Lucerne 16 to 20″ Mangold Wurtzel 5 to 7″
Mustard (Broadcast) 10 to 20″ Rape or Cole 4 to 6″ Rye Grass, Italian 3
bus. Rye Grass, Perennial 2″ Sainfoin 4″ Tares, or Vetches 3″ Turnip,
Swedish 3 lb. Turnip, Common 2 to 3″ Trifolium 16 to 20″
Agrostemma.—A hardy annual that is very pretty when in flower;
suitable for borders. Flourishes in any soil, and is easily raised from
seed sown in spring. Blooms in June and July. There are also perennial
varieties: these are increased by division of the root. Height, 1 ft. to
Agrostis.—A very elegant and graceful species of Bent-Grass. It is
a hardy annual, and is largely used for bouquets. Sow the seed in March.
Height, 1 ft. to 1-1/2 ft.
Ajuga Reptans.—A hardy herbaceous perennial, suitable for the
front of borders. It will grow in any soil, and may be propagated by
seeds or division. May is its flowering season. Height, 6 in.
Akebia Quinata.—This greenhouse evergreen twining plant delights
in a soil of loam and peat; flowers in March, and is increased by
dividing the roots. Height, 10 ft.
Alchemilla Alpina (Lady’s Mantle).—A useful hardy perennial for
rock-work. It will grow in any soil, if not too wet, and may be
increased by seed sown in the spring or early autumn, or by dividing the
roots. It flowers in June. Height, 1 ft.
Allium Descendens.—A hardy, bulbous perennial. Plant in October or
November in any garden soil, and the flowers will be borne in July.
Height, 1 ft.
Allium Neapolitanum.—This is popularly known as the “Star.” It
bears large heads of pure white flowers, and is suitable for borders,
pots, or forcing in a cool house. Any common soil suits it. It is
increased by off-sets. Being one of our earliest spring flowers, the
bulbs should be planted early in autumn. Height, 1 ft.
Alonsoa.—A pretty and free-blooming half-hardy annual, which
produces fine spikes of orange-scarlet flowers in June. It is multiplied
by cuttings or seeds. Height, 1 ft. to 1-1/2 ft.
Aloysia Citriodora.—This favourite lemon-scented verbena should be
grown in rich mould. If grown in the open, it should be trained to a
wall facing south, and in winter the roots need protecting with a heap
of ashes and the branches to be tied up with matting. It is increased by
cuttings planted in sand. August is its flowering season. Height, 3 ft.
Alsine Rosani.—This pretty little herbaceous plant, with its
cushions of green growth, makes a very fine display on rock-work or in
any shady position. Ordinary soil suits; it is of easy culture, and
flowers during June and July. Height, 3 in.
Alstromeria (Peruvian Lilies).—These beautiful summer-flowering
hardy perennials produce large heads of lily-like blossoms in great
profusion, which are invaluable for cutting for vase decorations as the
bloom lasts a long time in water. Plant in autumn 6 in. deep in a
well-drained sunny situation, preferably on a south border. Protect in
winter with a covering of leaves or litter. They may be grown from seed
sown as soon as it is ripe in sandy loam. They bloom in July. Height, 2
ft. to 3 ft.
Alternantheras.—Cuttings of this greenhouse herbaceous plant may
be struck in autumn, though they are usually taken from the old plants
in spring. Insert them singly in 4-1/2-in. pots filled with coarse sand,
loam, and leaf-mould. When rooted, place them near the glass, and keep
the temperature moist and at 60 degrees or 65 degrees, then they will
flower in July. Height, 4 in. to 1 ft.
Alyssum.—Well adapted for rock-work or the front of flower-beds,
and is best sown in autumn. The annual, or Sweet Alyssum, bears an
abundance of scented white flowers in June, and on to the end of
September. The hardy perennial, Saxatile (commonly called Gold Dust),
bears yellow flowers in spring. Height, 6 in.
Amaranthus.—The foliage of these half-hardy annual plants are
extremely beautiful, some being carmine, others green and crimson, some
yellow, red, and green. They are very suitable either for bedding or pot
plants. Sow the seed early in spring in gentle heat, and plant out in
May or June in very rich soil. If put into pots, give plenty of room for
the roots and keep well supplied with water. Flower in July and August.
Height, 1-1/2 ft. to 6 ft.
Amaryllis.—These plants bear large drooping bell-shaped lily-like
blossoms. They thrive best in a compost of turfy loam and peat, with a
fair quantity of sand. The pots must in all cases be well drained. Most
of the stove and greenhouse species should be turned out of their pots
in autumn, and laid by in a dry place until spring, when they should be
re-potted and kept liberally supplied with water. A. Reticulata and A.
Striatifolia bloom best, however, when undisturbed. Discontinue watering
when the foliage shows signs of failing, but avoid shrivelling the
leaves. The hardy varieties should be planted 6 in. deep in light,
well—drained soil, and allowed to remain undisturbed for two or three
years, when they will probably require thinning out. They are increased
by off-sets from the bulbs.
The Belladonna (Belladonna Lily) should be planted in June in a
sheltered border in rich, well-drained soil.
Formosissima (the Scarlet Jacobean Lily) is a gem for the greenhouse,
and very suitable for forcing, as it will bloom two or three times in a
season. It should be potted in February.
Lutea (Sternbergia) flowers in autumn. Plant 4 in. deep from October
Purpurea (Vallota Purpurea or Scarborough Lily) is a very beautiful
free bloomer. October and November or March and April are the most
favourable times for potting, but established plants should be re-potted
in June or July.
Ambrosia Mexicana.—A hardy annual of the simplest culture. Sow the
seed in spring in any fine garden soil. Height, 1-1/2 ft.
American Plants.—These thrive most in a peat or bog soil, but
where this cannot be obtained a good fertile loam, with a dressing of
fresh cow manure once in two years, may be used; or leaf-mould and soil
from the surface of pasture land, in the proportions of three parts of
the former to one of the latter. The soil should be chopped up and used
in a rough condition. Sickly plants with yellowish foliage may be
restored by applying liquid manure once a week during the month of July.
A light top-dressing of cow manure applied annually, and keeping the
roots free from stagnant water, will preserve the plants in good health.
Ammobium.—Pretty hardy perennials which may be very easily raised
from seed on a sandy soil. Flower in June. Height, 2 ft.
Ampelopsis.—Handsome and rapid climbers, with noble foliage, some
changing to a deep crimson in autumn. The Veitchii clings to the wall
without nailing, and produces a profusion of lovely leaves which change
colour. Any of the varieties may be grown in common garden soil, and may
be increased by layers.
Anagallis (Pimpernel.)—Very pretty. Sow the hardy annuals in the
open early in March; the biennials or half-hardy perennials in pots in a
greenhouse or a frame, and plant out when strong enough. May also be
increased by cuttings planted in ordinary soil under glass. Flower in
July. Height, 6 in.
Anchusa.—Anchusa Capensis is best raised in a frame and treated as
a greenhouse plant, though in reality it is a hardy perennial. The
annual and biennial kinds succeed well if sown in the open in rich soil.
All are ornamental and open their flowers in June. Height, 1-1/2 ft.
(See also “Bugloss.”)
Andromeda.—An ornamental evergreen shrub, commonly known as the
Marsh Cystus, and thriving in a peat soil with partial shade. May be
grown from seed sown directly it is ripe and only lightly covered with
soil, as the seed rots if too much mould is placed over it. Place the
seedlings in a cold frame and let them have plenty of air. It is more
generally increased by layers in September, which must not be disturbed
for a year. Drought will kill it, so the roots must never be allowed to
get dry. It flowers in April and May. Height, 2 ft.
Androsace.—Pretty little plants, mostly hardy, but some require
the protection of a frame. They grow best in small pots in a mixture of
turfy loam and peat. Water them very cautiously. They flower at
different seasons, some blooming as early as April, while others do not
put forth flower till August. They can be increased by division as well
as by seed. Height, 6 in.
Anemones.—These are highly ornamental, producing a brilliant
display of flowers. The scarlets make very effective beds. They are
mostly hardy, and may be grown in any moist, light, rich garden soil,
preferably mixed with a good proportion of silver sand. They should
occupy a sunny and well-drained situation. For early spring flowering
plant from October to December, placing the tubers 2-1/2 or 3 in. deep
and 4 or 5 in. apart, with a trowelful of manure under each plant, but
not touching them. A little sea sand or salt mixed with the soil is a
preventive of mildew. If planted in February and March they will bloom
from April to June. They are increased by seeds, divisions, or off-sets;
the greenhouse varieties from cuttings in light loam under glass. The
tubers will not keep long out of the ground. In growing from seed choose
seeds from single-flowering plants; sow in March where they are intended
to flower 1 in. deep and 9 in. apart; cover with leaf-mould. Two or
three sowings may be made also during the summer. Height, 6 in. to 2 ft.
Anemonopsis Macrophylla.—A rather scarce but remarkably handsome
perennial, producing lilac-purple flowers with yellow stamens in July
and August. It will grow in ordinary soil, and may be increased by
division. Height, 2 ft.
Angelonia Grandiflora Alba.—An elegant and graceful greenhouse
plant, giving forth a delicious aromatic odour. It grows best in a
compost of turfy loam and peat, but thrives in any light, rich soil.
Take cuttings during summer, place them under glass, but give a little
air occasionally. Height, 1-1/2 ft.
Annuals.—Plants of this description arrive at maturity, bloom,
produce seed, and die in one season.
Hardy.—The seed should be sown thinly in the open borders during
March, April, or May in fine soil, covering slightly with well-prepared
mould—very small seeds require merely a dusting over them. When the
plants are large enough to handle, thin them out boldly, to allow them
to develop their true character. By this means strong and sturdy plants
are produced and their flowering properties are enhanced. Many of the
hardy annuals may be sown in August and September for spring flowering,
and require little or no protection from frost.
Half-Hardy.—These are best sown in boxes 2 or 3 in. deep during
February and March, and placed on a slight hotbed, or in a greenhouse at
a temperature of about 60 degrees. The box should be nearly filled with
equal parts of good garden soil and coarse silver sand, thoroughly
mixed, and have holes at the bottom for drainage. Scatter the seeds
thinly and evenly over the soil and cover very lightly. Very small
seeds, such as lobelia and musk, should not be covered by earth, but a
sheet of glass over the box is beneficial, as it keeps the moisture from
evaporating too quickly. Should watering become necessary, care must be
taken that the seeds are not washed out. As soon as the young plants
appear, remove the glass and place them near the light, where gentle
ventilation can be given them to prevent long and straggly growth.
Harden off gradually, but do not plant out until the weather is
favourable. Seed may also be sown in a cold frame in April, or in the
open border during May; or the plants may be raised in the windows of
Tender.—These must be sown on a hotbed, or in rather stronger heat
than is necessary for half-hardy descriptions. As soon as they are large
enough to be shifted, prick them off into small pots, gradually potting
them on into larger sizes until the flowering size is reached.
Anomatheca Cruenta.—This produces an abundance of bright red
flowers with a dark blotch and a low growth of grass-like foliage. It is
suitable for either vases, edges, or groups. Plant the bulbs in autumn
in a mixture of loam and peat, and the plants will flower in July. They
require a slight protection from frost. If the seed is set as soon as it
is ripe it produces bulbs which will flower the following year. Height,
Antennaria.—Hardy perennial plants, requiring a rich, light soil.
They flower in June and July, and may be increased by cuttings or
division. The heights of the various kinds range from 3 in. to 2 ft.
Anthemis Tinctoria (Yellow Marguerites).—These perennials are
almost hardy, needing protection merely in severe weather. They are
readily raised from seed sown in gentle heat early in spring or by slips
during the summer months. Transplant into light soil. As pot plants they
are very effective. June is their flowering period. Height, 1-1/2 ft.
Anthericum Liliago (St. Bernard’s Lily).—One of the finest of
hardy plants, and easy to grow. Planted in deep, free, sandy soil, it
will grow vigorously, and in early summer throw up spikes of
snowy-white, lily-like blossoms from 2 to 3 feet in height. It may be
divided every three or four years, but should not be disturbed oftener.
Mulching in early springtime is advantageous.
Anthericum Liliastrum (St. Bruno’s Lily).—This hardy perennial
is a profuse bloomer, throwing up spikes of starry white flowers from
May to July. Treat in the same manner as the foregoing. Height, 2 ft.
Anthoxanthum Gracila.—Sweet vernal grass. It is graceful and
ornamental, and is used for edgings. Sow in spring, keeping the seed
moist until it germinates. Height, 6 in.
Anthyllis Montana.—A fine hardy perennial for rock-work. It is of
a procumbent habit, and has a woody nature. A vegetable soil is best
suited for its growth, and its roots should be in contact with large
stones. It may be increased by cuttings taken in spring and planted in
the shade in leaf-mould. It flowers at midsummer. Height, 6 in.
Antirrhinum (Snapdragon).—Handsome hardy perennials; most
effective in beds or borders. They stand remarkably well both drought
and excessive rainfall, and succeed in any common soil. Seeds sown early
in spring produce flowers the same year. For spring bedding, sow in
July; keep the young plants in a cold frame, and plant out in March or
April. Choice sorts may be plentifully increased by cuttings taken in
July or August. Flower from July to September. Height, 1-1/2 ft. to 2
Ants in Gardens.— Contrary to general belief, ants do more good
than harm to a garden; but as they are unsightly on flowers, it is
advisable to tie a little wool round the stems of standard roses and
other things upon which they congregate. They will not crawl over the
wool. A little sulphur sprinkled over a plant will keep them from it;
while wall-fruit, etc., may be kept free from them by surrounding it
with a broad band of chalk. Should they become troublesome on account of
their numbers a strong decoction of elder leaves poured into the nest
will destroy them; or a more expeditious method of getting rid of them
is to put gunpowder in their nests and fire it with a piece of
touch-paper tied on to a long stick.
Aotus Gracillima.—A charming and graceful evergreen shrub, whose
slender branches are covered with small pea-like flowers in May. It is
most suitable for the greenhouse, and delights in a soil of loamy peat
and sand. Cuttings of half-ripened wood planted under glass will take
root. Height, 3 ft.
Aphides, or plant-lice, make their presence known by the plant
assuming an unhealthy appearance, the leaves curling up, etc. Frequently
swarms of ants (which feed upon the aphides) are found beneath the
plants attacked. Syringe the plant all over repeatedly with gas-tar
water, or with tobacco or lime-water. The lady-bird is their natural
Apios Tuberosa (Glycine Apios).—An American climbing plant which
produces in the autumn bunches of purple flowers of an agreeable odour.
The foliage is light and elegant. The plant is quite hardy. It enjoys a
light soil and a good amount of sunshine. It may be increased by
separating the tubers after the tops have died down, and planting them
while they are fresh. Height, 12 ft.
Apples.—Apples delight in a moist, cool climate. All apples will
not succeed on the same soil, some preferring clay, while others grow
best in sandy loam or in well-drained peat. For a deep, good soil and a
sheltered situation the standard form grafted on the Crab-apple is
generally considered to be the most profitable. For shallow soils it is
better to graft on to the Paradise stock, as its roots do not run down
so low as the Crab. The ground, whether deep or shallow, should receive
a good mulching in the autumn; that on the deep soil being dug in at the
approach of spring, while that on the shallow soil should be removed in
the spring to allow the ground to be lightly forked and sweetened,
replacing the manure when the dry, hot weather sets in. The best time to
perform the grafting is March, and it should be done on the whip-handle
system, particulars of which will be found under “Grafting.” Young trees
may be planted in the autumn, as soon as the leaves have fallen. Budding
is done in August, just in the same manner as roses. In spring head back
to the bud; a vigorous shoot will then be produced, which can be trained
as desired. Apples need very little pruning, it being merely necessary
to remove branches growing in the wrong direction; but this should be
done annually, while the branches are young—either at the end of July
or in winter. If moss makes its appearance, scrape it off and wash the
branches with hot lime. The following sorts may be specially
recommended:—For heavy soils, Duchess of Oldenburgh, equally suitable
for cooking or dessert; Warner’s King, one of the best for mid-season;
and King of the Pippins, a handsome and early dessert apple. For light,
warm soils, Cox’s Orange Pippin or Bess Pool. The Devonshire Quarrenden
is a delicious apple, and will grow on any good soil. In orchards
standards should stand 40 ft. apart each way, and dwarfs from 10 ft. to
Apricots.—Early in November is the most favourable time for
planting Apricots. The soil—good, sound loam for preference—should be
dug 3 ft. deep, and mixed with one-fourth its quantity of rotten leaves
and one-fourth old plaster refuse. Place a substratum of bricks below
each tree and tread the earth very firmly round the roots. They will not
need any manure until they are fruiting, when a little may be applied in
a weak liquid form, but a plentiful supply of water should be given
during spring and summer months. The fan shape is undoubtedly the best
way of training the branches, as it allows a ready means of tucking
small yew branches between them to protect the buds from the cold. They
may be grown on their own roots by planting the stone, but a quicker way
to obtain fruit is to bud them on to vigorous seedling plum trees. This
should be done in August, inserting the bud on the north or north-west
side of the stem and as near the ground as possible. To obtain prime
fruit, thin the fruit-buds out to a distance of 6 in. one from the
other. In the spring any leaf-buds not required for permanent shoots can
be pinched back to three or four leaves to form spurs. The Apricot is
subject to a sort of paralysis, the branches dying off suddenly. The
only remedy for this seems to be to prevent premature vegetation. The
following are good sorts: Moor Park, Grosse Peche, Royal St. Ambroise,
Kaisha, Powell’s Late, and Oullin’s Early. In plantations they should
stand 20 ft. apart.
Aquatics.—All aquatics grow best in wicker-baskets filled with
earth. Cover the surface of the earth with hay-bands twisted backwards
and forwards and round the plant, and lace it down with tarred string,
so as to keep the earth and plant from being washed out. The following
make good plants:—White Water Lily (Nymphaea Alba) in deep water with
muddy bottom; Yellow Water Lily (Nuphar Lutea); and Nuphar Advena,
having yellow and red flowers; Hottonia Palustris, bearing
flesh-coloured flowers, and Alismas, or Water Plantain, with white, and
purple and white flowers. Water Forget-me-nots (Myosotis Palustris)
flourish on the edges of ponds or rivers. The Water Hawthorn
(Aponogetou Distachyon) does well in a warm, sheltered position, and
may be grown in loam, plunged in a pan of water. Calla Ethiopica bears
pretty white flowers, so also does the before-mentioned Aponogeton
Distachyon. The Flowering Rush (Butomus Umbellatus), produces fine
heads of pink flowers. The Water Violet merely needs to be laid on the
surface of the water; the roots float. For shallow water Menyanthus
Trifoliata (Three-leaved Buckbean) and Typha Latifolia (Broad-leaved
Cat’s Tail) are suitable. Weeping Willows grow readily from cuttings of
ripened shoots, planted in moist soil in autumn. Spiraea does well in
moist situations, near water. Aquatics are propagated by seed sown under
water: many will allow of root-division. Tender Aquatics are removed in
winter to warm-water tanks.
Aquilegia (Columbine).—Very ornamental and easily-grown hardy
perennials. Sow seed in March in sandy soil, under glass, and transplant
when strong enough. Common garden soil suits them. The roots may be
divided in spring or autumn. The flowers are produced from May to July.
Height, 2 ft.
Arabis Alpina (Rock Cress, or Snow in Summer).—Pure white hardy
perennial, which is valuable for spring bedding. Not particular to soil,
and easily raised from seed sown from March to June, placed under a
frame, and transplanted in the autumn, or it may be propagated by slips,
but more surely by rootlets taken after the plants have done flowering.
Plant 3 in. apart. Height, 6 in.
Aralia (Fatsia Japonica).—Fine foliage plants, very suitable for
a shady situation in a living-room. They may be raised from seed sown in
autumn in a gentle heat, in well-drained pots of light sandy soil. Keep
the mould moist, and when the plants are large enough to handle, pot
them off singly in thumb pots, using rich, light, sandy soil. Do not pot
too firmly. Keep them moist, but do not over water, especially in
winter, and re-pot as the plants increase in size. Be careful not to let
the sun shine on them at any time, as this would cause the leaves to
lose their fresh colour.
Aralia Sieboldi (Fig Palm).—This shrub is an evergreen, and is
generally given stove culture, though it proves quite hardy in the open,
where its large deep-green leaves acquire a beauty surpassing those
grown indoors. Slips of half-ripened wood taken at a joint in July may
be struck in heat and for the first year grown on in the greenhouse. The
young plants should be hardened off and planted out in May in a sunny
situation. It should be grown in well-drained sandy loam. Is increased
also by off-sets, and blooms (if at all) in July. Height, 3 ft.
Aralia Sinensis. See “Dimorphantus.”
Araucaria Imbricata (The Monkey Puzzle, or Chilian Pine).—This
strikingly handsome conifer is very suitable for a forecourt or for a
single specimen on grass. Young plants are sometimes grown in the
conservatory and in the borders of shrubberies, as well as in the
centres of beds. It requires a good stiff sandy loam, which must be well
drained, and plenty of room for root action should be allowed. Young
plants are obtained from seed sown in good mellow soil. Water sparingly,
especially during the winter.
Arbor Vitae. See “Thuya.”
Arbutus (Strawberry Tree).—Elegant evergreen shrubs with dark
foliage of great beauty during October and November, when they produce
an abundance of pearly-white flowers, and the fruit of the previous year
is ripe. A. Unedo is particularly charming. They flourish in the open in
sandy loam. The dwarfs are increased by layers, the rest by seeds or by
budding on each other.
Arctostaphylos.—These evergreen shrubs need the same treatment as
Arbutos. A. Uva-ursi, or Creeping Arbutos, is a pretty prostrate
evergreen, which flowers in May, and is only 3 in. high.
Arctotis.—A showy and interesting half-hardy annual. Raise the
seed in a frame in March, and transplant in May. It succeeds best in a
mixture of loam and peat. It flowers in June. Height, 1 ft.
Arctotis Grandis.—A very handsome, half-hardy annual producing
large daisy-like flowers on long wiry stems, the upper part being white
and the base yellow and lilac, while the reverse of the petals are of a
light lilac. The seed should be sown early in spring on a slight
hot-bed, and the plants potted off, when sufficiently strong, using a
rich, light mould. They may be transferred to the border as soon as all
fear of frost is over. Height, 2-1/2 ft.
Ardisia Japonica.—An evergreen shrub which delights in a mixture
of loam and peat. Cuttings will strike if planted in sand under glass
with a little bottom heat. It flowers in July. Height, 6 ft.
Arenaria Balearica (Sand Wort).—A hardy evergreen trailing plant
of easy culture, provided it is favoured with a sandy soil. Its cushions
of white flowers are produced in July, and it may be increased by seed
or division. Height, 3 in. It is a beautiful plant for moist, shady
Argemone.—Interesting hardy annuals, succeeding well in any common
garden soil. Are increased by suckers or by seed sown in spring. Height,
6 in. to 3 ft.
Aristolochia Sipho (Dutchman’s Pipe).—This hardy, deciduous
climber grows best in peat and sandy loam with the addition of a little
dung. It may be raised from cuttings placed in sand under glass. Height,
Armeria (Thrift).—Handsome hardy perennials for rock-work or
pots. They require an open, rich, sandy soil. Bloom June to September.
Height, 1-1/2 ft.
Arnebia.—Ornamental hardy annuals, closely allied to the Anchusa.
The seeds are sown in the open in spring, and flowers are produced in
July. Height, 2 ft. There is also a dwarf hardy perennial variety (A.
Echioides) known as the Prophet’s Flower, growing about 1 ft. high, and
flowering early in summer. It needs no special treatment.
Artemisia Annua.—Pretty hardy annuals, the silvery leaves of the
plant being very effective on rock-work. Sow the seed in spring where it
is to flower. Height, 6 ft.
Artemisia Arborea. See “Southernwood.”
Artemisia Villarsii.—A hardy perennial whose graceful sprays of
finely-cut silvery foliage are very useful for mixing with cut flowers.
It may be grown from seed on any soil, and the roots bear dividing;
flowers from June to August. Height, 2 ft.
Artichokes.—The Jerusalem variety will flourish in light sandy
soil where few other things will grow. Plant the tubers in March, 6 in.
deep and 12 in. apart in rows 3 ft. asunder, and raise and store them in
November. The Globe variety is increased by off-sets taken in March. Set
them in deeply manured ground in threes, at least 2 ft. apart and 4 ft.
from row to row. Keep them well watered, and the ground between them
loose. They bear best when two or three years old.
Arum Lilies.—In warm districts these beautiful plants may be grown
in damp places out of doors, with a south aspect and a background of
shrubs, though, not being thoroughly hardy, it is safer to grow them in
pots. They may be raised from seed in boxes of leaf-mould and sand,
covering them with glass, and keeping them well watered. As soon as they
can be handled, transplant them into small pots, and pot on as they
increase in size. They may also be increased by the small shoots that
form round the base of the corms, using a compost of loam, leaf-mould,
and sand, with a little crushed charcoal. In June transplant them in the
open to ripen their corms, and in August put them carefully into 6-in.
pots filled with the above-mentioned compost. They need at all times a
good amount of moisture, especially at such times as they are removed
from one soil to another. At the same time, it is necessary to procure
good drainage. It is well to feed them every other day with weak liquid
manure. A temperature of 55 degrees throughout the winter is quite
sufficient. When grown in the open, the bulbs should be placed 3 in.
below the soil, with a little silver sand beneath each, and not be
disturbed oftener than once in four years. Three or four may stand a
foot apart. Stake neatly the flower stems. They flower from September to
Arums.—Remarkably handsome plants with fine foliage and curious
inflorescence more or less enclosed in a hooded spathe, which is
generally richly coloured and marked. They are hardy, easily grown in
any soil (a good sandy one is preferable), and flower in July. Height,
1-1/2 ft. (See also “Calla.”)
Asarum Europaeum.—This curious hardy perennial will grow in almost
any soil, and may be increased by taking off portions of the root early
in autumn, placing them in small pots till the beginning of spring, then
planting them out. It produces its purple flowers in May. Height, 9 in.
Asclepias (Swallow-Wort).—Showy hardy perennials which require
plenty of room to develop. They may be grown from seed sown in August or
April, or can be increased by division of the root. A very light soil is
needed, and plenty of sunshine. Flowers are produced in July. Height, 1
ft. to 2-1/2 ft.
Asparagus.—Sow in March or April, in rich light soil, allowing the
plants to remain in the seed-beds until the following spring; then
transplant into beds thoroughly prepared by trenching the ground 3 ft.
deep, and mixing about a foot thick of well-rotted manure and a good
proportion of broken bones and salt with the soil. The plants should
stand 2 ft. apart. In dry weather water liberally with liquid manure,
and fork in a good supply of manure every autumn. Give protection in
winter. The plants should not be cut for use until they become strong
and throw up fine grass, and cutting should not be continued late in the
season. April is a good time for making new beds. The roots should be
planted as soon as possible after they are lifted, as exposure to the
air is very injurious to them.
Asparagus Plumosus Nanus is a greenhouse variety, bearing fern-like
foliage. The seeds should be sown in slight heat early in spring.
Asparagus Sprengeri.—This delightful greenhouse climber is seen to
best advantage when suspended in a hanging basket, but it also makes an
attractive plant when grown on upright sticks, or on trellis-work. It is
useful for cut purposes, lasting a long time in this state, and is fast
taking the place of ferns, its light and elegant foliage making it a
general favourite. It should be grown in rich, light mould, and may be
propagated by seed or division. The roots should not be kept too wet,
especially in cold weather.
Asperula (Woodruff).—A. Azurea Setosa is a pretty, light-blue
hardy annual, which is usually sown in the open in autumn for early
flowering; if sown in the spring it will bloom in June or July. A.
Odorata is a hardy perennial, merely needing ordinary treatment. It is
serviceable for perfuming clothes, etc. Asperulas thrive in a moist
soil, and grow well under the shade of trees. Height, 1 ft.
Asphalte Paths.—Sift coarse gravel so as to remove the dusty
portion, and mix it with boiling tar in the proportion of 25 gallons to
each load. Spread it evenly, cover the surface with a layer of spar,
shells, or coarse sand, and roll it in before the tar sets.
Asphodelus.—Bold hardy herbaceous plants; fine for borders; will
grow in common soil, and flower between May and August. Increased by
young plants taken from the roots. Height, 2-1/2 ft. to 4 ft.
Aspidistra.—This greenhouse herbaceous perennial is a drawing-room
palm, and is interesting from the fact that it produces its flowers
beneath the surface of the soil. It thrives in any fairly good mould,
but to grow it to perfection it should be accommodated with three parts
loam, one part leaf-mould, and one part sand. It will do in any
position, but is best shaded from the midday sun. It may be increased by
suckers, or by dividing the roots in April, May, or June. Supply the
plant freely with water, especially when root-bound. When dusty, the
leaves should be sponged with tepid milk and water—a teacup of the
former to a gallon of the latter. This imparts a gloss to the leaves. A
poor sandy soil is more suitable for the variegated kind, as this
renders the variegation more constant. Height, 1 ft. to 2 ft.
Asters.—This splendid class of half-hardy annuals has been vastly
improved by both French and German cultivators. Speaking generally, the
flowers of the French section resemble the chrysanthemum, and those of
the German the paeony. They all delight in a very rich, light soil, and
need plenty of room from the commencement of their growth. The first
sowing may be made in February or March, on a gentle hotbed, followed by
others at about fourteen days’ interval. The seeds are best sown in
shallow drills and lightly covered with soil, then pressed down by a
board. Prick out the seedlings 2 in. apart, and plant them out about the
middle of May in a deeply-manured bed. If plant food be given it must be
forked in lightly, as the Aster is very shallow-rooting, and it should
be discontinued when the buds appear. For exhibition purposes remove the
middle bud, mulch the ground with some good rotten soil from an old turf
heap, and occasionally give a little manure water.
Astilbe.—Ornamental, hardy herbaceous perennials, with large
handsome foliage, and dense plumes of flowers, requiring a peaty soil
for their successful cultivation. They may be grown from seed sown in
July or August, or may be increased by division. They flower at the end
of July. The varieties vary in height, some growing as tall as 6 ft.
Astragalus Alpinus.—A hardy perennial bearing bluish-purple
flowers. It will grow in any decent soil, and can be propagated from
seed sown in spring or autumn, or by division. Height, 6 ft.
Astragalus Hypoglottis.—A hardy deciduous trailing plant,
producing purple flowers in July. Sow the seed early in spring on a
moderate hotbed, and plant out into any garden soil. Height, 3 in.
Astragalus Lotoides.—This pretty little trailer is of the same
height as A. Hypoglottis, and merely requires the same treatment. It
flowers in August.
Astrantia.—This herbaceous plant is quite hardy, and will thrive
in any good garden soil, producing its flowers in June and July. Seed
may be sown either in autumn or spring. Height, 1-1/2 ft. to 2 ft.
Atragene Austriaca.—Handsome, hardy climbers, which may be grown
in any garden soil. They flower in August, and are increased by layers
or by cuttings under glass. Height, 8 ft.
Atriplex.—Straggling hardy annuals of very little beauty. Will
grow in any soil if sown in spring, and only require ordinary attention.
Flower in July. Height, 5 ft.
Aubrietia.—An early spring-blooming hardy perennial. Very
ornamental either in the garden or on rock-work, the flowers lasting a
long time. An open and dry situation suits it best. May be readily
raised from seed, and increased by dividing the roots or by cuttings
under a glass. Flowers in March and April. Height 6 in.
Aucuba.—Hardy evergreen shrubs, some having blotched leaves. They
look well standing alone on grass plots, and are indifferent to soil or
position. Cuttings may be struck in any garden soil under a hand-glass
in August, or by layers in April or May. When the male and female
varieties are planted together, the latter produce an abundance of large
red berries, rendering the plant very showy and ornamental. They bloom
in June. Height, 6 ft.
Auricula.—This is a species of primrose, and is sometimes called
Bear’s Ear from the shape of its leaves. It succeeds best in a mixture
of loam and peat, or in four parts rotten loam, two parts rotten cow
dung, and one part silver sand; delights in shade, and will not bear too
much water. It makes an effective border to beds, and is readily
propagated by off-sets taken early in autumn, or in February or March,
by division of roots immediately after flowering, or from seed sown in
March on gentle heat in firmly pressed light, rich soil, covered with a
piece of glass and shaded from the sun till the plants are well up, when
sun and air is needed. When large enough to handle, prick them out in a
cold frame 6 in. apart, and keep them there through the winter. Take
care to press the soil well round the roots of off-sets. October is a
good time for making new borders. The half-hardy kinds require the
protection of a house in winter. Height, 6 in.
Avena Sterilis.—A very singular hardy-annual ornamental grass,
generally known as Animated Oats. Very useful in a green state for
mixing with cut flowers. Sow in March or early in April. Height, 3 ft.
Azaleas (Greenhouse).—A good soil for these deciduous shrubs is
made by mixing a fair quantity of silver sand with good fibrous peat.
The plants must never be allowed to become too wet nor too dry, and must
be shaded from excessive sunshine. After they have flowered remove the
remains of the blooms, place the plants out of doors in the sun to ripen
the wood, or in a temperature of 60 degrees or 65 degrees, and syringe
them freely twice a day. If they require shifting, it must be done
directly the flowers have fallen. Cuttings taken off close to the plant
will root in sand under a glass placed in heat. A. Indica is a plant of
great beauty. Stand it in the open air in summer, in a partially shaded
position. In winter remove it to a cool part of the greenhouse. The
hardy varieties should receive the same treatment as rhododendrons.
Flowers in June. Height, 4 ft.
Azara Microphylla—This hardy evergreen shrub, with its fan-like
branches and small dark, glossy leaves, is very ornamental and
sweet-scented. It is increased by placing cuttings of ripened wood in
sand under glass with a little heat. Height, 3 ft.
- Letter “J” – Encyclopedia J Jacobaea (Ragwort).—May be raised from cuttings in the same way as Verbenas, and will grow freely from seeds sown in autumn or spring. It...
- Letter U | Flowers Encyclopedia U Ulex Europaeus Flore Pleno (Double Furze).—This elegant, hardy, evergreen shrub likes a rich, sandy soil, and may be increased by cuttings planted in a...
- Letter X | Flowers Encyclopedia X Xeranthemum.—These charming everlasting annuals retain, in a dried state, their form and colour for several years. They are of the easiest culture, merely requiring...
- Flowers Encyclopedia: Letter Q Quaking Grass.—See "Briza." Quercus Ilex.—A handsome evergreen Oak, delighting in a deep, loamy soil. It is propagated by seed sown as soon as it is...
- Flowers Encyclopedia: Letter P Continued Poa Trivalis.—A very pretty, dwarf-growing, variegated grass. Plant in a moist situation in a rich, light, loamy soil. It is increased either by seed or...