Cabbage.—Sow from February to April for an autumn supply, and in
July and August for spring cutting. As soon as the plants have made four
or five leaves, transplant into soil that has been liberally manured and
trenched, or dug deeply, placing them 18 in. or 2 ft. apart, according
to the kind grown. Keep the soil well broken up, and give a liberal
supply of liquid manure while they are in a growing state. An open and
sunny situation is necessary. Among the best varieties for spring sowing
are Heartwell, Early Marrow, Little Pixie, Nonpareil, Sugarloaf, and
Early Dwarf York. For autumn sowing, Ellam’s Dwarf Early Spring,
Defiance, and Enfield Market may be recommended.
Coleworts may be sown in June, July, and August for succession, placing
them about a foot apart, and cutting before they heart.
Chou de Burghley is of great value for spring sowing, and will be found
very useful during autumn and early in winter. This vegetable is
sometimes called Cabbage Broccoli, on account of the miniature Broccoli
which are formed among its inner leaves towards autumn.
Couve Tronchuda, known also as Braganza Marrow and Portugal Cabbage,
should be sown in March, April, and May for succession.
Savoy Cabbage is sown in March or April, and given the same treatment as
other Cabbage. Its flavour is much improved if the plants are mellowed
by frost before being cut for use.
Red Dutch is used almost solely for pickling. Its cultivation is
precisely the same as the white varieties.
Cacalia.—Hardy annuals, remarkable for their awkward-looking stems
and discoloured leaves. They grow best in a mixture of sandy loam, brick
rubbish, and decomposed dung, well reduced. They require very little
water while growing, and the pots must be well drained. Cuttings, laid
by for a few days to dry, strike readily. Flower in June. Height, 1-1/2
Cactus.—A sandy loam with brick rubbish and a little peat or
rotten manure suits them. Echinopsis is a good plant for cool houses or
windows. During the summer it should be syringed over-head with tepid
water, and weak soot water should be given three times a week. It is
propagated by off-sets planted in sand, also by slicing off a portion
from the top of the plant and placing it in light, rich, porous loam.
Caladiums.—Favourite hothouse foliage plants, generally grown in
peat soil at a temperature of 70 degrees. They require plenty of light
while growing, and to be kept moderately moist at the roots. As the
leaves lose colour less water should be given, and during winter they
must be kept almost dry. When fresh growth begins, shake them out of
their pots and put them into fresh mould. In syringing the plants use
nothing but the purest rainwater, but the less the leaves are wetted the
better for the appearance of the plants. They may be increased by
dividing the root stock into as many pieces as there are crowns. These
should be planted in very rich, sandy soil, an inch or so below the
Calamintha Grandiflora.—This hardy herbaceous plant has
sweetly-fragrant foliage, and bears rose-coloured flowers from May to
September. Any loamy soil suits it, and it is easily increased by
suckers. Height, 1 ft.
Calampelis.—A species of half-hardy climbing plants of great
merit. They are elegant when in flower, and will endure the open air.
They should be trained to a south wall, or over a vase, or up a pillar.
Any light loamy soil suits them, and they are easily increased by
cuttings. Flower in July. Height, 10 ft. (See also “Eccremocarpus.”)
Calandrinia.—Very pretty hardy annuals. They grow well in sunny
places in a mixture of loam and peat, and may be raised from seed sown
in the spring or by cuttings placed under hand-glasses. Bloom in July.
Height, 6 in. to 1 ft.
Calceolaria.—Many of the varieties are suitable for the greenhouse
only. They may be grown from seed, but as this is so small it should not
be covered; and in watering them it is best to stand the seed-pans in
water so that the moisture ascends, as watering from the top might wash
the seed too deeply into the soil. July and August are the two best
months for sowing. The half-shrubby kinds make fine bedding plants. They
are easily reared from cuttings. These are best taken in October. Put
them in light, sandy mould on a well-drained north border; press the
earth round them, and cover with a hand-glass. In very frosty weather a
mat should be laid over the glass. Pot them off in spring; give plenty
of air, and plant them out at the beginning of June, or before, if
Calendula (Marigolds).—Very showy hardy annuals. They merely
require sowing in the open in autumn for an early display of bloom, or
in spring for a later show, but the autumn sowing gives the more
satisfaction. Flower during June and July. Height, 1 ft.
Californian Plants.—Great care should be taken not to allow the
sun to strike on the collar of any of the plants from California, as
they readily succumb if it does so.
Calla.—These showy plants, sometimes called Arum, are worth
cultivating. They make handsome pot-plants, bearing fine white flowers
in the spring. May be grown from seeds, or roots may be divided. They
are quickly increased by off-sets from the root in August or September.
Plant the off-sets from the fleshy roots singly in small, well-drained
pots of sandy loam with one-fourth leaf-mould or well-rotted manure, and
keep them in a very warm situation. Water them well while in growth,
scantily after the leaves begin to wither, and afterwards give only
enough moisture to keep them alive. Leave the plants in the light while
the leaves die off, and then place them in a shed, in complete repose,
for a month or so. Re-pot them in October or November, and give plenty
of water. They may stand in saucers of water, but this must be changed
daily. They flower from May to July. Height, 2 ft.
Callichroa.—A hardy annual which well deserves a place in the
garden border, both on account of its dwarf and slender habit and also
the colour of its flowers. It is satisfied with any ordinary soil. The
seed is raised on a hotbed in March, or in the open in April, and it
blooms in the autumn. Height, 1 ft.
Callirhoe (Digitata).—Hardy annuals demanding but little
attention. The seed is sown in the open in March. Height, 1 ft.
Calochortus Luteus.—This very handsome hardy perennial thrives
best in sandy peat with a little loam. It produces yellow flowers in
July, and is propagated by offsets from the bulbs. Height, 1 ft.
Caltha.—Early-flowering, showy perennials, all thriving in a moist
or boggy situation. C. Leptosepala is especially choice, its pure white
flowers resembling a water-lily. They may be increased from seed, or by
division. Height, 1 ft.
Calthus Palustris Flore-Pleno (Double Marsh Marigold).—This
hardy herbaceous perennial is very useful for mixing with cut flowers.
It will grow anywhere, but prefers a clayey soil and a boggy situation,
and may be increased by dividing the roots in spring. A succession of
flowers are borne from April to June. Height, 9 in.
Calycanthus Floridus (Allspice).—This shrub likes an open loamy
soil; flowers in July, and is propagated by layers. Height, 6 ft.
Calystegia.—A perfectly hardy climbing convolvulus, and a
beautiful plant for covering arbours, etc., growing 20 ft. to 30 ft. in
one season. It thrives in any loamy soil or situation; flowers from May
to September, and may be increased by division of the roots.
Camassia Esculenta.—A handsome, hardy, bulbous plant, bearing
clusters of beautiful blue flowers in July. It needs a sandy peat border
under a north wall, and is increased by bulbs or seeds. Plant the bulbs
early in October, 4 in. deep and 5 in. apart. Height, 1-1/3 ft.
Camellias.—The best soil for these beautiful greenhouse evergreens
is a mixture of rough peat, plenty of sand, and a little turfy loam. The
greenhouse should be kept rather close, at a temperature of 55 degrees
to 60 degrees, while the plants are growing; but abundant syringing is
necessary at all times. Induce a vigorous growth of wood, and let this
be well matured by exposure to the sun and free ventilation. Old and
straggling plants may be renovated by cutting them hard back as soon as
they go out of flower, and placing them in a warm house where a moist
atmosphere is maintained. This will induce them to break. Comparatively
little water should be given for some time after they are cut back. When
the state of the roots require the plants to be re-potted, remove as
much of the old soil as possible without injuring them, and put them
into the smallest sized pots into which they can be got, with fresh
soil. This may be done after the last flower has fallen, or after the
buds have fairly commenced to push. The plants may be placed out of
doors at the beginning of June, and returned to the greenhouse in
October. There are several varieties suitable for growing in the open.
These should be provided with a soil, 2 ft. deep, composed of peat,
leaf-mould, and cows’ dung. The roots should always be kept moist and
cool, and the plants disturbed as little as possible. A top dressing of
fresh soil may be given each winter, and the plants protected from frost
by binding straw round the stems.
Campanula.—A showy genus of plants, mostly hardy perennials, which
need no special treatment. They are readily raised from seed, or
division of roots. The less hardy kinds may be sown on a hotbed or in
the greenhouse, and when large enough potted off. Campanula Mayii is a
grand plant for hanging baskets, and also grows well trained up sticks
in a pyramidal form. A rich, gritty soil suits them all. The
tall-growing varieties make fine pot-plants. Flower in July. Height, 1
ft. to 5 ft.
Canary Creeper (Tropaeolum Canariense).—This is eminently
suitable for trellis-work or for walls. Its elegant foliage and bright
yellow flowers make it a general favourite. It may be raised from seed
on a hotbed in spring, gradually hardened off, and planted out in May.
Height, 10 ft.
Candytuft (Iberis).—Very pretty hardy annuals. Sow the seed in
autumn in a light, rich soil, or in spring if a less prolonged flowering
season will give satisfaction. Bloom in May or June. Height, 1 ft.
Canna (Indian Shot or Hemp).—For pot-plants on terraces, gravel
walks, and such like places, few things can equal and none surpass
Cannas. They are half-hardy perennials, and may be increased from seed
or by dividing the roots late in autumn, allowing them first to
partially dry. File the tough skin off one end of the seed, and steep it
in hot water for a few hours before it is sown, then stand it in a hot
place till it has germinated. Harden off and plant out, or shift into
larger pots in June, using a rich, light soil. Lift and store the roots
in autumn in the same way as Dahlias. Different kinds flower at various
seasons, so that a succession of bloom may be had throughout the year.
Height, 2 ft. to 10 ft.
Cannabis Gigantea (Giant Hemp).—This half-hardy Hemp is grown
for its ornamental foliage, and is treated as above described. Height, 6
Canterbury Bells.—Showy hardy biennials, which may be raised from
seed sown in the spring. Transplant in the autumn to the border where
they are intended to flower. The seed may also be sown in a sheltered
position in August or September. Flower in July. Height, 2 ft.
Cape Primroses.—See “Streptocarpus.”
Capsicum.—Sow early in March in well-drained pots of rich, light,
free mould; cover the seed with 1/2 in. of soil, and keep it constantly
moist at a temperature of 65 degrees. When strong enough to handle put
two or three plants in a 5-in. pot, and replace them in warmth. Keep
them rather close till established, then shift them into 7-in. pots.
When established remove them to a cold frame and harden off. Plant out
at the end of May in a warm situation. Keep them well supplied with
water in dry weather and syringe the leaves. By stopping the shoots they
become nice, bushy shrubs. Flower in July. Height, 1-1/2 ft.
Cardamine Pratensis (Cuckoo Flower, or Milkmaid).—This hardy
perennial thrives in a moist, shady situation. It produces its purple
flowers from May to August, and is easily propagated by seeds or
division. Height, 1-1/2 ft.
Cardamine Trifolia.—A hardy herbaceous plant; will grow in any
soil, flowers in May, and is easily raised from seed. Height, 1-1/2 ft.
Cardoons.—Sow two or three seeds together in clumps 1 ft. apart,
in trenches prepared as for Celery, in April or May. When 6 in. high
pull up the superfluous plants, leaving the strongest one in each case.
When they have attained the height of 1-1/2 ft, tie the leaves lightly
to a stake and earth-up the stem. Keep them well supplied with water,
adding a little guano. They will be ready for use in September. Another
sowing may be made in June for a spring crop.
Carduus (Milk Thistle).—Coarse hardy annuals; somewhat
ornamental, but are hardly more than weeds. They grow freely from seed,
and flower from June to August. Height, 2 ft. to 4 ft.
Carex Japonica.—This is a graceful and very beautiful variegated
grass, striped green, silver, and gold, and makes a fine decoration for
the table. It will grow in any moderately moist soil, and bears
dividing. Sow in spring.
Carlina.—Ornamental, thistle-like, hardy perennials, which will
grow in any ordinary soil. Flowers are borne from June to September.
Seed may be sown as soon as it is ripe. Height, 9 in. to 2 ft.
Carnations.—These are divided into three classes, but they are all
said originally to come from the clove: (1) Flakes, which are striped
with one colour and white; (2) Bizarres, those streaked with two colours
and white; (3) Picotees, which have each petal margined with colour on a
white or yellow ground, or dotted with small spots. For pot culture,
about the end of March put two roots in an 11-in. pot, filled with
light, turfy loam, well drained (too much moisture being injurious),
pressing the earth firmly round the roots. Stand them on a bed of ashes
in a sheltered position, and when the flower-stems appear, stake and tie
up carefully. As the buds swell thin out the weakly ones. To prevent
them bursting unevenly put an india-rubber ring round the bud, or tie it
with raffia. They will flourish in the open borders even in towns if
planted in light loam, and may be propagated by layers at the end of
July or beginning of August. Choose for this purpose fine outside
shoots, not those which have borne flowers. Cut off all the lower
leaves, leaving half a dozen near the top untouched. Make incisions on
the under sides of the layers, just below the third joint. Peg down, and
cover the stems with equal quantities of leaf-mould and light loam. Do
not water them till the following day. The young plants may be separated
and potted off as soon as they have taken root—say, the end of August.
They may also be increased by pipings. Fill the pots nearly to the top
with light, rich mould and fill up with silver sand. Break off the
pipings at the third joint, then in each piping cut a little upward
slit, plant them pretty thickly in the sand, and place the pot on a
gentle hotbed, or on a bed of sifted coal ashes. Put on the sashes, and
keep the plants shaded from the sun till they have taken root, then
harden off gradually, and place each of the young plants separately in a
small pot. Carnations may also be grown from seed sown in spring. When
the seedlings have made six or eight leaves, prick them out into pots or
beds. They will flower the following year. The beds must be well
drained, as stagnant wet is very injurious to them.
Carnation Margaritae.—May be sown in heat during February or
March, pricked out when strong enough, and planted in the open in May or
Carpenteria Californica.—The white flowers of this evergreen
shrub, which make their appearance in July, are delicately fragrant. The
plant is most suitable for a cool greenhouse, but does well in the open,
in warm, well-drained situations. When grown in pots the mould should
consist of two parts turfy loam, one part peat, and a little sharp sand.
It may be increased by seeds or by cuttings planted in sandy soil, with
a medium bottom heat.
Carrots.—To grow them to perfection carrots require a deep, rich,
sandy soil, which has been thoroughly trenched and manured the previous
autumn. For the main crop the seed should be sown in March, either
broadcast or in rows 18 in. apart. A calm day must be chosen for sowing,
as the seed is very light and liable to be blown about. It has also a
tendency to hang together, to obviate which it is generally rubbed into
some light soil or sand previously to being scattered. Thin out to a
distance of from 4 to 7 in., according to the kind grown. For early use
the French Horn may be sown on a hotbed in January and February. Keep
the surface of the ground well open with the hoe.
Cassia Corymbosa.—This stove shrub is an evergreen. It should be
grown in a mixture of loam and peat, and may be increased by cuttings
planted in sand under glass in a little heat. It flowers in July.
Height, 3 ft.
Castor Oil Plants.—See “Ricinus.”
Catananche.—Pretty hardy biennials that will grow in almost any
soil, and may be increased by seed or division. They bloom in August.
Height, 2½ ft. to 3 ft.
Cathcartia Villosa.—A beautiful Himalayan poppy, possessing a
rich, soft, hairy foliage and yellow flowers, borne in succession from
June to September. Any light, rich soil suits it, but it requires a
sheltered position. It is propagated by seeds sown in spring. Height, 1½
Cauliflowers.—Sow thinly in pans or shallow boxes early in
February and March on a gentle bottom-heat. Make a larger and the main
sowing in the open ground in March, April, and May for autumn cutting. A
sowing should also be made in August for spring and summer use. These
latter should be pricked into a frame or under a hand-glass during the
winter, and in spring planted out so as to stand 30 in. apart. When the
heads appear break some of the large leaves down over them to afford
protection, and during the whole of their growth pour plenty of water
round the stems in dry weather. They require a thoroughly rich and
well-tilled soil to grow them to perfection.
Ceanothus.—A genus of handsome and ornamental evergreen shrubs.
They are free-flowering and suitable for the conservatory or outdoor
decoration if placed in warm situations. They flourish best in peat and
loam, and are increased by cuttings planted in sand and subjected to
gentle heat. Height, 3 ft. to 6 ft.
Cedronella.—Ornamental hardy perennials; will grow in any soil,
but require a little protection in the winter. They produce their deep
purple flowers in June. Height, 3 ft.
Cedrus Deodora.—A beautiful and graceful conifer, its arched
branches being thickly set with long grey-coloured or whitish-green
leaves. In its young stage it makes an exquisite specimen for the lawn.
It is the best of all the Cedars for such a purpose. The usual method of
propagating it is by grafting it on to the common Larch.
Celery.—Sow in February or early in March on a mild hotbed for the
earliest crop. Prick the seedlings off into shallow boxes as soon as
they are large enough to handle, and keep them rather close and warm
until they are established. Towards the end of March prick them out in
rows in a frame, setting them 6 in. apart each way, and early in May
transfer to rather shallow trenches, protecting them from night frosts.
For main and late crops sow in a cold frame in April and plant out in
June or July, 9 in. apart, in trenches 3 ft. distant from each other, 9
in. wide, and 18 in. deep, pressing the soil firmly round the roots.
Earthing up should be delayed until the plants are nearly full grown,
and should be done gradually; but let the whole be completed before the
autumn is far advanced. When preparing the trench plenty of manure
should be dug into the soil. Water liberally until earthed up to ensure
crisp, solid hearts, and an occasional application of liquid manure will
benefit the plants. During winter protect from frost with straw, or
other suitable material.
Celosia (Feathered Cockscomb).—Sow the seed in early spring in a
warm frame; prick off singly into small pots, and re-pot as they advance
in strength in a compost of loam, leaf-mould, old manure, and sand.
Their final shift should be into 24-sized pots. Give them abundance of
liquid manure, never allowing them to become dry, and syringe freely.
These half-hardy annuals, rising to the height of 3 ft. and bearing fine
spikes of flowers in July and August, make fine pot-plants for table
decoration. They may be planted in the open, in June, choosing a warm,
sheltered situation and rich, loamy soil.
Centaurea.—The hardy annual and biennial kinds merely require to
be sown in the open in the autumn. The half-hardy ones must be sown on a
slight hotbed, where they should remain till strong enough to be planted
in the border. Cuttings of the perennials should be inserted singly in
3-in. pots filled with sandy loam, placed in a shady, cool frame till
established, and then watered very carefully. The different varieties
vary from 6 in. to 2 ft. in height, and flower from June to August.
Centauridium Drummondi.—A blue hardy annual which may be sown in
the open in spring.
Centranthus.—Ornamental hardy annuals. Sow in the open border in
March in any good, well-drained soil. They flower in June. Height, 1-1/2
Cephalaria (Yellow Scabious).—Strong-growing hardy perennials,
suitable for backs of borders. They succeed in any garden soil, and are
propagated by seed or division of root. Height, 3 ft. to 5-1/2 ft.
Cephalotaxus (Podocarpus Koraiana).—Handsome conifers of the Yew
type. These shrubs are quite hardy, and in favoured localities will
produce berries. They succeed best in a damp, shady spot, and may be
increased by cuttings planted in heavy loam.
Cerastium Biebersteini.—A hardy trailing perennial which will grow
in any light soil, and may be increased by suckers. It flowers in June.
Height, 6 in.
Cerasus Padus (Bird Cherry).—An ornamental tree; useful in the
shrubbery in its earlier stages, as it will grow in any soil. It may be
increased by seed, budding, or grafting; flowers in April. Height, 35
Cerinthe.—Hardy annuals, suitable for any ordinary soil, and
needing merely ordinary treatment. A grand plant for bees. Height, 1 ft.
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- Letter X | Flowers Encyclopedia X Xeranthemum.—These charming everlasting annuals retain, in a dried state, their form and colour for several years. They are of the easiest culture, merely requiring...
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