Lilies.—The Lily is admirably adapted for pot culture, the conservatory, and the flower border, and will flourish in any light soil or situation. To produce fine specimens in pots they should be grown in a mixture of light turfy loam and leaf-mould. Six bulbs planted in a 12-in. pot form a good group. The pots should have free ventilation, and the bulbs be covered with 1 in. of mould. For outdoor cultivation plant the bulbs 4 to 5 in. deep, from October to March. After once planting they require but little care, and should not be disturbed oftener than once in three years, as established plants bloom more freely than if taken up annually. Give a thin covering of manure during the winter. Lilium seed may be sown in well-drained pots or shallow boxes filled with equal parts of peat, leaf-mould, loam, and sand. Cover the seeds slightly with fine mould and place the boxes or pots in a temperature of 55 or 65 degrees. A cold frame will answer the purpose, but the seeds will take longer to germinate. The Lancifolium and Auratum varieties have a delicious fragrance.
CANDIDUM (the Madonna, or White Garden Lily) should be planted before the middle of October, if possible, in groups of three, in well-drained, highly-manured loam. Should they decline, take them up in September and re-plant at once in fresh, rich soil, as they will not stand being kept out of the ground long. They are increased by off-sets. As soon as these are taken from the parent bulb, plant them in a nursery-bed; after two years they may be transferred to the garden. This Lily is quite hardy, and needs no protection during winter.
LANCIFOLIUM make very fine pot-plants, or they may be placed in a sunny situation in the border, but in the latter case they must have a thick covering of dry ashes in winter. If grown in pots place them, early in March, in rich, sandy soil. Three bulbs are sufficient for an 11-in. pot. Give very little water, but plenty air in mild weather. Let them grow slowly. When all frost is over place pans under them, mulch the surface with old manure, and supply freely with air and water. They are propagated by off-sets.
MARTAGON (or Turk's Cap) requires the same treatment as the Candidum, with the exception that a little sand should be added to the soil.
TIGRINUM (Tiger Lily) also receives the same treatment as the Madonna. When the flower-stems grow up they throw out roots. A few lumps of horse manure should be placed round for these roots to lay hold of. They are increased by the tiny bulbs which form at the axis of the leaves of the flower-stem. When these fall with a touch they are planted in rich, light earth, about 6 in. apart. In four or five years' time they will make fine bulbs.
AURATUM and SZOVITZIANUM (or Colchicum) thrive best in a deep, friable, loamy soil, which should be well stirred before planting. If the soil is of a clayey nature it should be loosened to a depth of several feet, and fresh loam, coarse sand, and good peat or leaf-mould added, to make it sufficiently light.
For PARDALINUM (the Panther Lily) and SUPERBUM mix the garden soil with three parts peat and one part sand, and keep the ground moist. They should occupy a rather shady position.
All the other varieties will succeed in any good garden soil enriched with leaf-mould or well-decayed manure.
For VALLOTA (Scarborough Lily), BELLADONNA, and FORMOSISSIMA (or Jacobean) Lilies, see "Amaryllis."
AFRICAN LILY.— see "Agapanthus."
PERUVIAN LILIES.— see "Alstromeria."
ST BERNARD'S and ST BRUNO'S LILIES.—, see "Anthericum."
CAFFRE LILIES.— see "Clivias."
Lily of the Valley.—Set the roots in bunches 1 ft. apart, and before severe weather sets in cover them with a dressing of well-rotted manure. They should not be disturbed, even by digging among the roots. If grown in pots, they should be kept in a cool place and perfectly dry when their season is over: by watering they will soon come into foliage and flower again. For forcing put ten or twelve "buds" in a 5-in. pot—any light soil will do—plunge the pot in a sheltered part of the garden. From this they may be removed to the forcing-house as required to be brought into bloom. Plunge the pots in cocoa-nut fibre and maintain an even temperature of from 65 to 70 degrees.
Limnanthes Douglasii.—Very elegant and beautiful hardy annuals, which are slightly fragrant. They must be grown in a moist and shady situation. The seeds ripen freely, and should be sown in autumn to produce bloom in June, or they may be sown in spring for flowering at a later period. Height, 1 ft.
Linaria.—These all do best in a light, sandy loam, and make good plants for rock-work. L. Bipartita is suitable for an autumn sowing. The other annuals are raised in spring. L. Triornithophora is a biennial, and may be sown any time between April and June, or in August. The hardy perennial, L. Alpina, should be sown in April, and if necessary transplanted in the autumn. Linarias flower from July to September. Height, 6 in. to 1 ft.
Linnaea Borealis.—A rare, native, evergreen creeping perennial. From July to September it bears pale pink flowers; it makes a pretty pot-plant, and also does well in the open when planted in a shady position. It enjoys a peat soil, and is propagated by separating the creeping stems after they are rooted. Height, 1½ in.
Linum (Flax).—This succeeds best in rich, light mould. The Linum Flavum, or Golden Flax, is very suitable for pot culture; it grows 9 in. in height, and bears brilliant yellow flowers. It requires the same treatment as other half-hardy perennials. The Scarlet Flax is an annual, very free-flowering, and unsurpassed for brilliancy; easily raised from seed sown in spring. Height, 1½ ft. The hardy, shrubby kinds may be increased by cuttings placed under glass. A mixture of loam and peat makes a fine soil for the greenhouse and frame varieties. They flower from March to July.
Lippia Reptans.—A frame creeping perennial which flowers in June. It requires a light soil. Cuttings of the young wood may be struck under glass. Height, 1 ft.
Lithospermum Prostratum.—A hardy perennial, evergreen trailer, needing no special culture, and adapting itself to any soil. It is increased by cuttings of the previous year's growth, placed in peat and silver sand, shaded and kept cool, but not too wet. They should be struck early in summer, so as to be well rooted before winter sets in. Its blue flowers are produced in June. Height, 1 ft.
Loasa.—The flowers are both beautiful and curiously formed, but the plants have a stinging property. They grow well in any loamy soil, and are easily increased by seed sown in spring. Flowers are produced in June and July. Height, 2 ft. Besides the annuals there is a half-hardy climber, L. Aurantiaca, bearing orange-coloured flowers, and attaining the height of 10 or 12 ft.
Lobelia.—These effective plants may be raised from seed sown in January or February in fine soil. Sprinkle a little silver sand or very fine mould over the seed; place in a greenhouse, or in a frame having a slight bottom-heat, and when large enough prick them out about 1 in. apart; afterwards put each single plant in a thumb-pot, and plant out at the end of May. As the different varieties do not always come true from seed, it is best to propagate by means of cuttings taken in autumn, or take up the old plants before the frost gets to them, remove all the young shoots (those at the base of the plant are best, and if they have a little root attached to them so much the better), and plant them thinly in well-drained, shallow pans of leaf-mold and sand; plunge the pans in a hotbed under a frame, shade them from hot sunshine, and when they are rooted remove them to the greenhouse till spring, at which time growth must be encouraged by giving a higher temperature and frequent syringing. They may then be planted out in light, rich soil, where they will bloom in June or July. Height, 4 in.
Lobels Catchfly.—See "Silene."
London Pride.—See "Saxifrage."
Lonicera.—Hardy deciduous shrubs, which will grow in any ordinary soil, and produce their flowers in April or May. They are propagated by cuttings planted in a sheltered position. Prune as soon as flowering is over. Height, from 3 ft. to 10 ft.
Lophospermum.—Very elegant half-hardy climbers. Planted against a wall in the open air, or at the bottom of trellis-work, they will flower abundantly in June, but the protection of a greenhouse is necessary in winter. They like a rich, light soil, and may be grown from seeds sown on a slight hotbed in spring, or from cuttings taken young and placed under glass. Height, 10 ft.
Love Apples.—See "Tomatoes."
Love Grass.—See "Eragrostis."
Love-lies-Bleeding (Amaranthus Caudatus).—A hardy annual bearing graceful drooping racemes of crimson blossom. The seed should be sown in the open at the end of March, and thinned out or transplanted with a good ball of earth. Makes a fine border plant. Height, 2 ft.
Luculia Gratissima.—A fine plant either for the wall or border. It grows well in a compost of peat and light, turfy loam, but it is not suitable for pot culture. During growing time abundance of water is needed. When flowering has ceased, cut it hard back. It may be increased by layering, or by cuttings placed in sand under glass and subjected to heat. It flowers in August. Height, 8 ft.
Lupins.—Though old-fashioned flowers, these still rank among our most beautiful annual and herbaceous border plants. They may be grown in any soil, but a rich loam suits them best. The seed germinates freely when sown in March, and the flowers are produced in July. Height, 2 ft. to 3 ft.
Lychnis.—Hardy perennials which, though rather straggling, deserve to be cultivated on account of the brilliancy of their flowers. L. Chalcedonica, commonly known as Ragged Robin, is perhaps the most showy variety; but L. Viscaria Plena, or Catchfly, is a very beautiful plant. They grow freely in light, rich, loamy soil, but need dividing frequently to prevent them dwindling away. The best season for this operation is early in spring. Beyond the care that is needed to prevent the double varieties reverting to a single state, they merely require the same treatment as other hardy perennials. They flower in June and July. Height, 2 ft. to 3 ft.
Lyre Flower.—See "Dielytra."
Lysimachia Clethroides.—This hardy perennial has something of the appearance of a tall Speedwell. When in flower it is attractive, and as it blooms from July on to September it is worth a place in the border. A deep, rich loam is most suitable for its growth, and a sheltered position is of advantage. The roots may be divided either in November or early in spring. Height, 3 ft.
Lysimachia Nummularia (Creeping Jenny).—This plant is extremely hardy, and is eminently suitable either for rock-work or pots. It is of the easiest cultivation, and when once established requires merely to be kept in check. Every little piece of the creeping root will, if taken off, make a fresh plant.
Lythrum.—Very handsome hardy perennials which thrive in any garden soil, and may be raised from seed or increased by dividing the roots. They flower in July. Height, of different varieties, 6 in. to 4 ft.
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